How Trello Android transformed from Gson to Moshi

Trello Android just lately transformed from utilizing Gson to Moshi for dealing with JSON. It was a bit difficult so I needed to doc the method.

(For context, Trello Android primarily parses JSON. We not often serialize JSON, and thus a lot of the focus right here is on deserializing.)

There have been three primary causes for the swap from Gson to Moshi: security, pace, and dangerous life decisions.

Security – Gson doesn’t perceive Kotlin’s null security and can fortunately place null values into non-null properties. Additionally, default values solely typically work (relying on the constructor setup).

Velocity – Loads of benchmarks (1, 2, 3) have demonstrated that Moshi is normally sooner than Gson. After we transformed, we arrange some benchmarks to see how real-world parsing in contrast in our app, and we noticed a 2x-3.5x speedup:

Dangerous life decisions – As a substitute of utilizing Gson to parse JSON into easy fashions, we might write elaborate, complicated, brittle customized deserializers that had fully an excessive amount of logic in them. Refactoring gave us a possibility to right this architectural snafu.

As for why we picked Moshi over rivals (e.g. Kotlin serialization), we typically belief Sq.’s libraries, we have used Moshi up to now for initiatives (each at work and at residence) and felt it labored properly. We didn’t do an in-depth examine of alternate options.

Step one was to make sure that we might use characteristic flags to modify between utilizing our outdated Gson implementation and the brand new Moshi one. I wrote a JsonInterop class which, primarily based on the flag, would both parse all JSON responses utilizing Gson or Moshi.

(I opted to keep away from utilizing instruments like moshi-gson-interop as a result of I needed to check whether or not Moshi parsing labored in its entirety. If you happen to’d relatively have a mixture of Gson and Moshi on the similar time, that library could be helpful.)

Gson provides you alternatives to override the default naming of a key utilizing @SerializedName. Moshi helps you to do the identical factor with @Json. That is all properly and good, nevertheless it appeared very easy to me to make a mistake right here, the place a property is parsed beneath totally different names in Gson vs. Moshi.

Thus, I wrote some unit exams that may confirm that our generated Moshi adapters would have the identical final result as Gson’s parsing. Particularly, I examined…

  • …that Moshi might generate an adapter (not essentially an accurate one!) for every class we needed to deserialize. (If it could not, Moshi would throw an exception.)
  • …that every subject annotated with @SerializedName was additionally annotated with @Json (utilizing the identical key).

Between these two checks, it was simple to seek out once I’d made a mistake updating our courses in later steps.

(I can’t embrace the supply right here, however mainly we used Guava’s ClassPath to assemble all our courses, then scan via them for issues.)

Gson lets you parse generic JSON timber utilizing JsonElement (and mates). We discovered this convenient in some contexts like parsing socket updates (the place we wouldn’t know the way, precisely, to parse the response mannequin till after some preliminary processing).

Clearly, Moshi will not be going to be joyful about utilizing Gson’s courses, so we switched to utilizing Map<String, Any?> (and typically Checklist<Map<String, Any?>>) for generic timber of information. Each Gson and Moshi can parse these:

enjoyable <T> fromJson(map: Map<String, Any?>?, clz: Class<T>): T? {
  return if (USE_MOSHI) {
  else {
    gson.fromJson(gson.toJsonTree(map), clz)

As well as, Gson is pleasant in direction of parsing by way of Readers, however Moshi will not be. I discovered that utilizing BufferedSource was a great various, as it may be transformed to a Reader for outdated Gson code.

The best adapters for Moshi are those the place you simply slap @JsonClass on them and name it a day. Sadly, as I discussed earlier, we had a number of unlucky customized deserialization logic in our Gson parser.

It’s fairly simple to write a customized Moshi adapter, however as a result of there was a lot customized logic in our deserializers, simply writing a single adapter wouldn’t lower it. We ended up having to create interstitial fashions to parse the uncooked JSON, then adapt from that to the fashions we’re used to utilizing.

To offer a concrete instance, think about we now have a knowledge class Foo(val depend: Int), however the precise JSON we get again is of the shape:

  "knowledge": { 
    "depend": 5

With Gson, we might simply manually have a look at the tree and seize the depend out of the knowledge object, however we now have found that approach lies insanity. We would relatively simply parse utilizing easy POJOs, however we nonetheless wish to output a Foo ultimately (so we do not have to alter our entire codebase).

To unravel that downside, we’d create new fashions and use these in customized adapter, like so:

@JsonClass(generateAdapter = true) knowledge class JsonFoo(val knowledge: JsonData)

@JsonClass(generateAdapter = true) knowledge class JsonData(val depend: Int)

object FooAdapter {
  enjoyable fromJson(json: JsonFoo): Foo {
    return Foo(depend = json.knowledge.depend)

Voila! Now the parser can nonetheless output Foo, however we’re utilizing easy POJOs to mannequin our knowledge. It’s each simpler to interpret and straightforward to check.

Keep in mind how I stated that Gson will fortunately parse null values into non-null fashions? It seems that we have been (sadly) counting on this habits in all types of locations. Particularly, Trello’s sockets typically return partial fashions – so whereas we’d usually anticipate, say, a card to come back again with a reputation, in some instances it received’t.

That meant having to watch our crashes for instances the place the Moshi would blow up (because of a null worth) when Gson could be joyful as a clam. That is the place characteristic flags actually shine, because you don’t wish to should push a buggy parser on unsuspecting manufacturing customers!

After fixing a dozen of those bugs, I really feel like I’ve gained a hearty appreciation for non-JSON applied sciences with well-defined schemas like protocol buffers. There are a number of bugs I bumped into that merely wouldn’t have occurred if we had a contract between the server and the shopper.

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